First Aid and Emergency
First degree (pain, redness, swelling):
- Run cool water over the area for at least 5 minutes
- Do not apply ointments or salves
- Cover with a sterile bandage
Second degree burns (red skin, blisters) or third degree burns (white or charred skin):
- Remove victim from heat source
- Do not remove clothing unless it easily comes off
- Cover burns with sterile bandages
- Keep burns wet
- Do not apply ointments or salves
- Do not puncture blisters
- Seek medical attention immediately
- Remove contaminated clothing and shoes
- Rinse the area with water for at least 15 minutes (sink, safety shower or hose that allows a large quantity of water to cover the affected area).
- DO NOT apply burn ointments or salves
- Cover with clean material and seek medical attention.
- For burns to the eyes, flood eyes with water (eyewash) for at least 15 minutes. Avoid chemicals re-entering the eyes by washing from the nose out to the ear. Cover eyes with gauze and seek medical attention.
- Seek medical attention immediately
- If victim is able to swallow, administer water or milk. Do not administer water or milk if victim is nauseated.
- If victim is unconscious, turn his or her entire body onto their left side. Administer CPR using a mouth-to-mask resuscitator, if possible.
Seek medical attention immediately.
Move victim from the area into fresh air.
If victim is breathing, lay him or her flat on their back, loosen clothing, and maintain airway by:
- Placing one hand under the neck and lifting
- Placing the heel of other hand on victim's forehead
- Tilting his or head backward (maximum extension)
- If airway needs to be opened further, thrust victim's lower jaw into a jutting-out position.
- Treat for any chemical burns
- Seek medical attention immediately
- Lay victim down; calm and reassure him or her
- DO NOT attempt to remove any impaled objects
- Use a sterile bandage or clean cloth to put direct pressure on the wound. If this does not control bleeding, elevate the wound (above the heart if possible)
- If bleeding is severe, cover victim with a blanket and elevate his or her legs about 1 foot.
WHAT YOU NEED TO DO:
- Wash needlesticks or cuts with soap and water; irrigate splashes to the nose, mouth or skin with water; irrigate eyes with clean water, saline, or sterile irrigants.
- Report exposure or injury to supervisor
- Immediately seek medical attention
- Complete SU "Employee First Report of Injury" (PDF) form for use when getting treatment. These forms are available through your supervisor, departmental offices and human resources.
Human Resources: x7-5026
Student Health Services: x3-6262
Medical non-emergency: x3-6222 (university police)
- If you have questions regarding medical treatment for occupational exposures to blood, 24 HOUR ASSISTANCE is available from the clinicians, post exposure prophylaxis hotline (PEPline) 888-448-4911.
- Updated U.S. Public Health Service Guidelines for the Management of Occupational Exposures to HBV, HCV, HIV and Recommendations for Postexposure Prophylaxis
- Practice Recommendations for Health-care Facilities Implementing the U.S. Public Health Service Guidelines for Management of Occupational Exposures to Bloodborne Pathogens
- Autoclave users should know the function of all controls and locking mechanisms, as well as the importance of all safety devices. Inexperienced users should use the autoclave under supervision from more knowledgeable personnel.
- Proper personal protective equipment should be worn when using the autoclave. This includes a lab coat and gloves that are heat-resistant, as well as adequate eye protection.
- Autoclaves should be checked periodically by laboratory personnel to ensure that safety devices are working properly and that all mechanisms are in good condition.
- Autoclaves should not be used for flammable or volatile liquids or chemicals.
- Operating instructions, safety practices, and spill clean-up procedures should be posted near each autoclave as an easy reference.
- Eyewash stations are required in all laboratories where contact with hazardous or corrosive chemicals is possible.
- Eyewash stations must be free from obstruction and able to be reached within ten seconds (without having to encounter a locked door). They must provide enough room to allow the eyelids to be held open while the eyes are irrigated.
- The on-off valve of the eyewash must be activated within one second, and must remain on, without the use of hands, until intentionally turned off. The eyewash should provide a stream of water of at least 0.4 gallons per minute for a minimum of 15 minutes, and must be able to irrigate and flush both eyes simultaneously.
- After the eyewash is used in an accident, the victim should seek medical attention.
- Eyewash stations should be flushed at least once per week by laboratory personnel. Eyewash stations are formally flushed and inspected twice a year.
- Lab personnel should know the location of all eyewash stations in their work area.
- Access to safety showers must be free from obstruction (e.g., not blocked by stored items),reachable within ten seconds and not separated by a locked doorway.
- Safety showers must be capable of delivering a flow rate of at least twenty gallons of water per minute to the victim's entire body for a minimum of 15 minutes.
- When the shower is used in an accident, the victim should remove contaminated clothing, and after use of the shower seek medical attention.
- Personnel should know the location and proper use of all safety showers in their area.
No fume hood can provide complete safety against all events which might occur in that hood. For instance, standing at the face of a hood with the sash fully open creates a low face velocity and air currents which may not adequately draw chemicals away from the experimenter. Airborne contaminants with a TLV in the low part per billion range require the greatest level of care. For more ordinary exposures, a properly designed hood in a properly ventilated room can provide adequate protection. However, certain work practices are necessarily in order for the hood to perform capably. The following work practices are generally required; more stringent practices may be necessary in some circumstances.
- Conduct all operations which may generate air contaminants at or above the appropriate TLV inside the a hood.
- Keep all apparatus at least 6 inches back from the face of the hood. A stripe or removable tape on the bench surface is a good reminder.
- Never not put your head within the hood when contaminants are being generated.
- Do not use the hood as a waste disposal mechanism except for very small quantities of volatile materials.
- Do not store chemicals or apparatus in the hood. Store hazardous chemicals in an approved safety cabinet.
- Keep the hood sash closed as much as possible.
- Keep the slots in the hood baffle free of obstruction by apparatus and/or containers.
- Minimize foot traffic past the face of the hood.
- Keep laboratory doors closed where possible.
- Do not remove hood sash or panels except when necessary for apparatus set-up; replace sash or panels before operating.
- Do not place electrical receptacles or other spark sources inside the hood when flammable liquids or gasses are present. No permanent electrical receptacles are permitted within the hood.
- Use an appropriate barricade or shield if there is a chance of explosion or eruption.
- Provide adequate maintenance for the hood exhaust system and the building supply system. Use static pressure gauges on the hood throat, across any filters in the exhaust system, or other appropriate indicators to ensure that exhaust flow is appropriate.
- If hood sash is supposed to be partially closed for the operation, the hood should be so labeled and the appropriate closure point clearly indicated.
If you have any questions concerning this list or the operation of a chemical fume hood, contact Environmental Safety @ 6-6485.
Person Protective Equipment
Eye protection used in the laboratory must meet ANSI (American National Standards Institute) Z87.1 specifications. The ANSI approval stamp can be found on the eyewear's lens or eyepiece.
- Should be splash-proof
- Should fit snugly over eyes and around the face
- Should be capable of being cleaned and disinfected
- Should not interfere with movement
Eye protection should be worn when using caustics, corrosives, irritants, flammables, explosives, UV light, lasers, radioactive materials, biohazardous materials, glassware under vacuum or pressure, or cryogenic materials.
Laboratory workers who wear corrective lenses should use prescription lens safety splash goggles, or splash-proof safety goggles that can be worn over corrective lenses.
- Contact lenses generally should not be worn in the laboratory. They provide no chemical or physical protection for the eyes, and also present potential hazards.
- Contact lenses may be impossible to remove from the eyes after contact with some types of chemicals.
- Contact lenses will reduce the effectiveness of emergency flushing procedures.
- Contact lenses may trap contaminants in the eyes.
Laboratory workers who must wear contact lenses for medical reasons should be especially careful to choose eye protection that fits snugly over the eyes and around the face.
A work area with a noise level of 85 decibels (dBA) or greater is considered a noise hazard. Under these conditions, ear protection should be worn. Noise reduction ratings (NRR) for hearing protection devices must be listed on its packaging.
Ear plugs and ear muffs provide sufficient protection against noise. Keep these devices clean and always wash hands before inserting ear plugs into ears. Cotton inserts are not adequate noise suppressors and should not be used.
Protective gloves should be worn when handling hazardous chemicals, sharp-edged objects, very hot or cold materials, or substances of unknown toxicity. When selecting and using protective gloves, laboratory workers should take precaution.
Protective gloves should be selected on the basis of the hazards involved.
- Polyvinyl gloves protect against mild corrosives and irritants.
- Latex gloves have some protection against irritants and infectious agents.
- Rubber gloves protect against mild corrosive material and electric shock.
- Neoprene gloves protect against solvents, oils, and mild corrosive material.
- Cotton gloves have limited protection against fire, and absorb perspiration.
It is important to wear gloves that are resistant to the material being used. In an accident, the wrong type of glove can be more hazardous than no gloves at all, keeping hazardous chemicals in prolonged contact with the hands.
Make sure gloves are in good condition and free from holes and tears before use. This becomes especially important when working with extremely corrosive material.
When removing gloves, keep the working surface of the glove away from hands and skin. The glove should be removed starting from the wrist and then pulled toward the fingers. Gloves that are contaminated with radioactive or biohazardous waste should be disposed of in appropriate waste containers. Wash hands as soon as possible after removing gloves.
Remove gloves before handling common objects such as pens, doorknobs, elevator buttons, etc.
Clothing and skin may be protected from chemicals by wearing a lab coat. The lab coat should always be properly fitted and is best if it is knee length. Different types of lab coats offer different types of protection.
- Cotton lab coats protect against flying objects and sharp edges, and are usually fire retardant.
- Wool lab coats protect against small quantities of acid and small flames.
- Synthetic fiber lab coats are not recommended since they are flammable and can adhere to the skin upon contact with fire, causing painful skin burns.
Lab coats should be able to be removed easily in the event of an emergency.
Proper footwear provides protection from corrosives, heavy objects and electric shock. In the laboratory, shoes should completely cover the feet.
Certain types of shoes offer added protection.
- Steel-toed shoes protect against crushing injuries and chemical contamination.
- Rubber boots protect against corrosive chemicals and provide traction.
- Insulated shoes protect against electric shock.
Fabric shoes, such as tennis shoes, can absorb liquids. If hazardous chemicals are spilled on fabric shoes they should be removed immediately.
Sandals, open-toed shoes and high heels should not be worn in the laboratory.