COURSE DESCRIPTION AND REQUIREMENTS
Course Designer: ANJALI PANDEY
OVERVIEW OF THE COURSE
This course aims to acquaint trainees with the theories, and specific techniques concerning the teaching of effective English speaking skills to newcomer populations in a variety of academic settings, content-areas, and proficiency levels. In effect, it explores the relationship between second language acquisition theory and speaking research on the one hand, and actual classroom language learning and oral skills instruction on the other.
The first part of the course will focus on both micro and macro speaking skills, via a synthesis of theoretical and practical issues in current conversation analysis theory, discourse analysis, and ethnomethodology. The focus will be on developing and enhancing the five key elements of ELL speaking namely, imitative, intensive, responsive, interactive and extensive speaking in both transactional and interpersonal settings. A specific focus of the course will be on building the academic speaking skills of ELL learners in both unidirectional as well as bi-directional formats through the design of activities which are: controlled, awareness-building, fluency-building, and feedback-enhancing for a variety of proficiency levels. The eventual aim is to provide an understanding of key cultural considerations behind effective oral instruction for multi-level and diverse learners in rural settings. Consequently, trainees will be exposed to over 30 case-studies of both effective and ineffective speaking classes across the world.
The second part of the course will focus on understanding the elements of task design in the speaking class with a specific emphasis on the microstrategies/techniques meant to enhance the speaking skills of students in specific content areas in the K-12 setting. Such strategies include but are not limited to the following: creating theoretically-based interest inventories; selecting effective speaking topics in relevant content areas; outlining the anatomy of effective speaking tasks; specifying the linguistic burden of oral speech acts—in particular, focusing on both the language in the task as well as the language for the task; building both accuracy and fluency in speech, monitoring output, and finally, designing creative speaking tasks which interest learners and trigger oral skills development. The course will conclude with a focus on effective oral assessment techniques of newcomer populations in K-12 settings under the No Child Left Behind Act.
By the end of the course, students should not only have a clearer understanding of the theory and praxis of oral skills enhancement but will also be able to:
The long-term outcome is to equip teachers with the expertise and confidence to handle ESOL populations that exhibit multiplex variation, that is students who come from a variety of ethnic, linguistic, educational and experiential backgrounds, and to provide educators with a repertoire of techniques to trigger meaningful and relevant oral skills enhancement which fosters overall literacy growth in the classroom.
Folse, Keith, (2006). The Art of Teaching Speaking: Research and Pedagogy for the ESL/EFL Classroom. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Brown, Douglas, H. (2004). Language Assessment: Principles and Classroom Practices. New York: Pearson Education Inc.
Seedhouse, Paul, (2004). The Interactional Architecture of the Language Classroom: A Conversation Analysis Perspective. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Helmer, Sylvia, and C. Eddy, (2003). Look at Me when I Talk to You: ESL learners in Non-ESL classrooms. Toronto: Pippin Publishing Corporation.
**** Additional readings will be distributed in class.
All written work in this course including, but not limited to, the formal assignments, such as the written assignments, as well as the formal project, are in support of the University’s Writing across the Curriculum Program.
The English Department takes plagiarism, the unacknowledged use of other people’s ideas, very seriously. As outlined in the Student Handbook under the “Policy on Student Academic Integrity,” plagiarism may receive such penalties as failure on a paper or failure in the course. The English Department recognizes that plagiarism is a very serious academic offense and professors make their decisions regarding sanctions accordingly. Since the research paper is a very important component of this class, please familiarize yourself with the details below.
Each of the following constitutes plagiarism:
1. Turning in as your own work a paper or part of a paper that anyone other than you wrote. This would include but is not limited to work taken from another student, from a published author, or from an Internet contributor.
2. Turning in a paper that includes unquoted and/or undocumented passages someone else wrote.
3. Including in a paper someone else’s original ideas, opinions or research results without attribution.
4. Paraphrasing without attribution.
A few changes in wording do not make a passage your property. As a precaution, if you are in doubt, cite the source. Moreover, if you have gone to the trouble to investigate secondary sources, you should give yourself credit for having done so by citing those sources in your essay and by providing a list of Works Cited or Works Consulted at the conclusion of the essay. In any case, failure to provide proper attribution could result in a severe penalty and is never worth the risk.
SPECIAL NEEDS: Any students with disabilities or other special needs, who need special accommodations and adjustments in this course, are invited to share these concerns or requests with the instructor as soon as possible.
You are responsible for coming to every class meeting barring any emergencies. Consistent tardiness and absences from this class will negatively impact your overall grade in the course. Please keep this in mind throughout the course. There will be unannounced in-class work assignments. Since this is a very practical course, be sure come to class rested and alert. Always come to class with your textbook and a video of your hours of videotaped teaching. The short duration of the course will require that you take careful notes throughout the duration of the course. These notes will aid in your recall of key information to be used later for review exercises and in-class work. Your in-class work assignments will constitute part of the grade awarded for class participation/review. If you are absent on a day of an in-class assignment, you will receive a zero for that assignment. If the reason for the absence is valid (such as sickness or any such unforeseen circumstance), make-up work may be assigned. Otherwise, missed in-class work may not be made up. The tight schedule of this class will require you to manage your time very wisely. As much as possible, assignments and projects are due on dates to ensure the effective use of both in-class and out-of-class time. Late assignments will not be permitted. Please let me know if you have any questions or concerns as soon as possible. This class assumes professional conduct at all times, and you may be asked to leave this class if you fail to respect the professional etiquette due your fellow peers and instructor.
CELL PHONE/LAPTOP POLICY: In recognition of the busy lives of students of the 21st century, cell phones will be permitted in this class only on modes of operation that will not disrupt class. You will be required to turn all cell phone ringers off, once class begins. Students cannot have cell phone conversations while class is in session. Use of laptops and other electronic devices assumes professional conduct at all times. This means that unless designated as part of the content of the course, please refrain from surfing the web or checking e-mail while class is in progress as this is very distracting to fellow classmates.
REQUIREMENTS AND STRUCTURE OF THE COURSE
1. Monitoring speaking skills in action: 15%
2. Identifying effective speaking strategies: 15%
3. designing effective speaking activities 20%
4. Culture in Speaking Task: 15%
5. Evaluating content coach responses: 15%
6. creating content-area oral skills handbook: 20%
DETAILED EVALUATION CRITERIA
1. Monitoring speaking skills in action: Analyzing Teacher Talk
Task: Choose a 5 minute segment in your videotaped teaching where you are directly teaching your students something. Be ready to contextualize the scenario when you share the segment with the class. Next, you will answer the following questions and present the results to the class formally (a power-point presentation/handouts would be the best format). Contextualize your clip.
2. ROUND TABLE DISCUSSION: Identifying effective Speaking strategies in the world’s classrooms: Due to the short duration/span of the course, please take extremely detailed notes of all lectures, discussions, exercises and readings. You will be required to remember key facts, and will need to be alert at all times in order to effectively remember details.
· During Institute IV we will analyze in detail case-studies of speaking classes around the world.
· In preparation for this task, carefully read Chapter 3 in The Art of Speaking. Read all of the 20 case studies described in the chapter.
· Take copious annotations/notes pertaining to the following questions: (it might be an effective idea to take notes on index cards to ease in your location of notes).
· Based on a lottery system you will be the discussion leader of two assigned cases. Approximately 5 minutes of talking time (maximum).
a. Your overall impression of the speaking class in the case study (Impressed/not impressed and theoretical reasons as to why)
b. Identify one speaking strategy (you can give it a name if the author did not), used by the teacher which you felt was especially effective for the particular group of students, and why.
c. Identify one speaking strategy which you felt was ineffective and explain why
d. If possible, link issues to class discussions/content
e. Any concluding remarks.
f. One question. Write this on a strip of paper which also includes the case number and your name. Bring these strips to class during institute 4.
· Evaluation Criteria: 1.Depth/detail in response; 2. relevance of content to task; 3.Time management; 4. Linkages to course content, and 5. Creativity/insight
3. DESIGNING EFFECTIVE Speaking activities:
A. Designing a Speaking Task: (10 points)
You will be shown a prompt item in class and be asked to design a creative speaking activity which contains information on all of the following items:
1. Interaction: An activity which promotes two-way interaction.
2. Planning Time: Specifies how students will plan their responses to the task (Student planning).
3. Task outcome: A closed task (one which promotes a limited response and is not open ended).
4. Linguistic Burden: specifies in clear terms, and via a comparative chart (see page 25 in your text) both the language IN the task and the language FOR the task
5. Directions: A clearly explained set of directions to students with a creative name for the activity (Refer to page 23 for an example).
This is due on the date marked on your syllabus. (Institute III)
· Evaluation Criteria: Content and Creativity
B. Classifying Oral tasks in the speaking class: (10 points)
You will be given a list of micro and macro speaking skills. Your task will be to read the 20 successful activities (Chapter 4 in your text) and 10 unsuccessful activities (Chapter 5 in your text), and for each activity,
a. identify either: micro/macro skill spotlighted in the task, OR what the pedagogical goal is (provide controlled activities; awareness building activities; fluency building activities or feedback-building activities).
b. Identify the speaking objectives embedded in the task: (e.g., imitative speaking; Intensive speaking; Responsive speaking; Interactive speaking or Extensive speaking).
c. share one salient thought/question about the activity with the class. Write this question on a small strip of paper.
You will share your responses in class during Institute III decided via a “drawing”. Please have all chapters carefully read for this task.
· Evaluation Criteria: Planning and Delivery
4. Culture in Speaking Task:
In order to train students on appropriacy in conversation, brainstorm and provide a list of 7 “taboo” questions/statements in any number of scenarios (i.e., in a classroom/school/home/workplace/office/ gathering), and provide reasons why these would be considered “taboo” topics/questions/statements in American culture. (e.g., going to someone’s house for dinner and asking: “How much did your house cost?” (Speculated Reason: In a culture based on strong links to work ethic and output, questions about monetary home-values put owners “on the spot” as to the value of their work ethic). Do not rely on research, but your own knowledge of American culture/experience to come up with your list. Your lists are due during Institute 2.
· Evaluation Criteria: Creativity/variety and Cultural Insight
We will be having three guest presenters/content coaches from local school districts who will be giving demonstration presentations on innovative speaking strategies for teaching ELL learners.
· Please take notes during the demonstration so that you do not forget salient points as they occur to you. Your notes should include pertinent information such as: the title of the talk, the presenter, and the time and day of the presentation.
· Keep a list of at least 3 strategies for the ELL speaking classroom that you saw highlighted in the presentation and which you were impressed by, and which you could use in your class.
· Keep a list of at least 3 strategies for the ELL speaking classroom that you saw highlighted in the presentation which you see would not work in your content area.
· Note how these strategies relate to the theories/readings in class.
After each presentation, each class member will “randomly” draw a question from a list of prepared questions, plan a response, and orally respond to the question in detail using notes as evidence on the day following the workshop (Maximum time of oral response 2-3 minutes). Questions will be based on course content/readings. You will be required to turn in all accompanying worksheets.
· Evaluation Criteria: 1. Detail/Insight in response (relevant links to course content); Oral organization of response/Fluency of response; 2. Relevancy of response to prompt/Time Management
6. Creating Content-area Speaking skills handbooks:
You will be paired with a partner of choice. Your task will be to design authentic, relevant and creative speaking activities for any grade level and content area of choice. Your handbook has to have the following contents:
Conclusion: Outline what you have learned from the project. Do your choices affirm authentic, creative and relevant activities for the audience you have chosen? Outline any challenges you faced when doing the project.
Further resources: web sources and print sources (provide a list)
Format of Task Description
Part 1 Curricular details:
For each speaking task outline the following:
§ Proficiency Level
§ Speaking objective/Type of speaking elicited: (e.g., Imitative, intensive, responsive. Interactive or extensive)
§ Pedagogical Objective:(e.g., controlled activities/awareness-building activities/fluency building activities or feedback building activities)
§ Microskill/macroskill under focus: Identify the skill based on the list provided in class.
Part 2: Procedural details:
Title: (provide a catchy name)
Description: Brief explanation of what the activity is and what it accomplishes
Needed: List materials to complete the activity
Preparation steps: Explain the activities involved in the “Pre-talking” phase (the background knowledge/vocabulary needed to get the task done); during task elements (Identify key vocabulary terms/grammar needed to complete the task) and post-talking activities (specific task objectives).
Suggestions: List of potential problems/suggestions for follow up
Sources: List useful sources (you can refer to Chapter 4 and relevant appendices in your text for relevant lay-out details)
Part 3: Task Design details:
1. INTERACTION: Specify whether the activity will elicit one-way or two-way interaction?
2. Planning Time: Specify student planning time and how this will be done.
3. Task outcome Specify whether the task outcome will be open-ended or a closed task.
4. Linguistic Burden: specify in clear terms, and via a comparative chart, (see page 25 in your text) both the language IN the task and the language FOR the task
5. Directions: A clear and brief set of directions to students with a creative name for the activity (Refer to page 23 for an example).
Part 4: Assessment Details
Explain how the task will be assessed. If using a rubric from the text, explain why this is the most appropriate.
NOTE: Please choose a workable partner. Since you are getting a team grade (unless there are exceptions), please divide duties equitably. Report any problems to me immediately.
· Evaluation criteria: 1. Authenticity of tasks; 2 creativity of tasks; 3. Relevancy of tasks to identified grade/content level; 4. Coherence; 5. Self-Evaluation.
GRADUATE CREDIT: Students will be assessed on all assignments using expectations of graduate school. Papers, presentations and the reports will have to include a greater range and depth of exploration, will have to demonstrate originality of ideas, and be presented in extremely professional terms (such as at national and international conferences). The following grading system will used:
90-100%=A; 85-89%=B+; 80-84%=B; 75-79%=C+; 70-74%=C; 65-69%=D; 0-64%=F
The M.A. TESOL at Salisbury University is an NCATE accredited program. In order to meet national accreditation requirements, and to collect data necessary for annual program review, selected samples from work completed in courses in the TARGET program may be copied and retained for review including videotaped teaching samples. All material thus obtained will be kept confidential and used for the purpose stated above. For further inquiries related to this matter, please contact the Chair of the English Department.
ESOL/TESOL: NCATE STANDARDS AND LINKAGES TO THE COURSE
Please refer to Domains 1 and 3 respectively in the document: http://www.tesol.org/s_tesol/seccss.asp?CID=219&DID=1689
Also, refer to the Rubric for Domain 3 under Planning, Implementing and Managing Instruction: “Candidates know, understand, and use standards-based practices and strategies related to planning, implementing, and managing ESL and content instruction, including classroom organization, teaching strategies for developing and integrating language skills, and choosing and adapting classroom resources” p. 40.
The above are two standards most applicable to this specific course though other standards are consistently alluded to—the separation is quite artificial. The chart below indicates the intended NCATE outcomes of the standard and the second column indicates the variety of assessments used in this particular course to meet these standards. Scores of 90-100% assume that the candidate “Exceeds Standards”; scores of 80-89% assume that the candidate “Meets Standards”; and scores of 70-79% assume that the candidate “Approaches Standards.” Below is the detailed link between outcomes and assessments to gauge the outcomes in this specific course:
Domain 3: Planning and Managing Instruction
Course relevant Assessments
“Candidates know, understand, and are able to use effective practices and strategies related to planning and management of ESL Instruction, including classroom organization, effective teaching strategies for developing and integrating language skills, implementing a variety of teaching strategies and structures, and effectively choosing and adapting classroom resources.”
· Self assessment of videotaped teaching of teacher talk and student oral development
· Assessment of 30 case studies of speaking classes around the world.
· Evaluation of lesson plans and materials design in three content coach demonstration projects.
· Evaluation of 30 speaking tasks based on theoretical/research criteria.
· Design of oral tasks in the form of a content-specific oral skills handbook/lesson plans.
· Survey of library /electronic research and oral presentations on effective methods of oral language teaching.
All students seeking TESOL certification should establish an electronic portfolio, and include as many projects from this course in this portfolio. Detailed hypermedia presentations done for this course can be included in this electronic portfolio. When including your portfolio selection, be sure to include: (just some tips!)
a) Approaches the specific standard
b) Meets the specific standard
c) Exceeds the specific standard
NOTE: The syllabus that follows is subject to changes. Both the pacing and the content will be dictated by your needs and intended outcomes for this class.
Salisbury University, Summer 2009
Course Designer: Anjali Pandey
Phone: Office: 410-677-5387; Home: 410-572-6033
Institute 1: Teaching Second language oral skills: Theoretical considerations
M July 27 Part I: Laying the groundwork
Introduction to the course, syllabus, course objectives and needs assessment.
Part II: Theory & Research:
Examining the Structure of Conversation: Theoretical Elements:
Exchange Structures; Adjacency pairs; Turn-taking; Openings and closings.
Showcase on “Controlled” Activities
Part III: Micro and Macro Speaking acts: Classification/Taxonomies
Classifying Speaking acts in terms of content; Looking at the attributes of
· Imitative speaking
· Intensive speaking
· Responsive speaking
· Interactive speaking
· Extensive speaking
Classifying Speaking acts in terms of Pedagogy:
· Controlled activities
· Awareness-building activities
· Fluency building activities
· Feedback-based activities.
Factors in planning and teaching a conversation class
Reading Focus: Introduction and Chapter 1 in The Art of Speaking
Analyzing key elements in oral skills development: Learner; curriculum; Topic; Linguistic demand, and Authenticity.
Part IV: Vocabulary Enhancement and Conversation skills
Reading Focus: Appendix A: “Ten things you should know about Teaching ESL vocabulary”
Part V: Conclusion and Review: Food for Thought Documentary #1
Part VI: Workshop/ Time for skills handbook Planning
Homework: Review notes and Read Chapters 2 and 4 in The Art of Speaking (see syllabus for task).
Review Appendix D: “Samples of Successful Lesson Plans”, and
Appendix E: “List of Classroom Materials and Web-sites.”
Institute II: Research on conversation Analysis/Discourse Analysis
Culture in Speaking Task due today
T July 28 Part I: Conversation Analysis Theory and Ethnomethodology: Findings and implications
Focus on Oral Narrative Structure
Conversational Implicature/Cooperative Principles in Conversation Analysis
Showcase on “Awareness”Activities
Understanding the underpinnings of: Accuracy/fluency; and Effective Task Design in the oral skills class.
Reading Focus: Chapter 2 in The Art of Speaking
Part II: Praxis: Speaking Skills in Action
Showcasing Video Demos (1-4)
Part III: Application: Micro strategies
Reading Focus: Appendix B: “Twelve things you should know about Teaching ESL pronunciation”
Part IV: Content Coach Demonstration Project:
§ Queen Anne’s County Public Schools: Ms. Sylvia Aguilar-Tipsword.
Part V: Conclusion and Review: Food for Thought Documentary #2
Workshop/ Time for skills handbook Planning
Homework: Read Chapter 5 in The Art of Speaking (see syllabus for details)
Institute III: Classifying Speaking Tasks: A theoretical evaluation
Designing Speaking Tasks Assignment due in class today
ü Oral review of Workshop 1
W July 29 Part I: Negative/Positive Politeness theory: Conversational Implications
Showcase on “Fluency” Skills
Part II: Praxis: The Art of Oral Language Teaching
Examining successful oral Activities: Discussion and classification
(Classifying Oral task Types Part I)
Reading Focus: Chapter 4 and 5 in The Art of Speaking
Examining unsuccessful activities: discussion
(Classifying Oral Task Types Part II)
Part III: Speaking Skills in Action
Reading Focus: Appendix D: “Samples of Successful Lesson Plans”
Showcasing Video Demos (4-8)
Part IV: Content Coach Demonstration Project:
§ Somerset County Public Schools: Ms. Jenna Ryerson
Conclusion and Review: Food for Thought Documentary #3
Part VI: Workshop/Time for skills handbook Planning
Homework: Review notes and read Chapter 3 (see syllabus for task).
Also read Appendix C: “The Role of Grammar in Teaching ESL/EFL Speaking”
Institute IV: Elements of successful conversation classes: A Global Perspective
ü Oral review of Workshop 2
Th July 30 Part I: Focus on “Feedback” Skills (Part 1)
Trends in global classrooms: Conversation courses around the world.
Roundtable Discussion Part 1
Reading Focus: Chapter 3 in The Art of Speaking
Part II: Looking at case studies on conversation around the world: Cultural issues in mainstreaming (Roundtable Discussion Part II)
Part III: Accuracy in orals skill instruction
Reading Focus: Appendix C: “The role of Grammar in Teaching ESL/EFL Speaking”
Showcasing Video Demos
Part IV: Content Coach Demonstration Project:
§ Kent County Public Schools-Adult ESOL: Ms. Patty Silver
Part V: Review and Conclusion: Food for Thought Documentary #4
Workshop/Time for skills handbook planning
Homework: Read Chapter 6 in The Art of Teaching Speaking.
Institute V: CONCLUSION: Assessing Speaking skills in the academic classroom
ü Oral review of Workshop 3
F July 31 Part I: Assessment in pre, during and post orals skills instruction
Focus on “Feedback” Skills (Part 2)
Reading Focus: Chapter 6 in The Art of Speaking
Focus on Paralinguistics in speech
Part II: Examining Formal Assessment Issues
Looking at formal and informal/alternative assessments in the oral classroom
Part 111: Workshop/ Time for skills handbook Planning
Content Coach Demonstration Project for next course:
§ Wicomico County School District: Mr. Robert Carlisle
Part 1V: Workshop/ Time for skills handbook Planning
§ FINAL PROJECT DUE IN CLASS on or before August 3, 2009 @ 8.30 a.m. (No Exceptions): (With all accompanying materials) (see course policy sheet for details).Please DO NOT use pocket folders when submitting final project
 The following standards are taken directly from the document “TESOL/NCATE Standards for the Accreditation of Initial programs in P-12 ESL Teacher Education”, (2002)-Draft prepared by the TESOL task force on ESL standards” TESOL Inc. Fro details, please refer to the following web-site: http://www.tesol.org/s_tesol/seccss.asp?CID=219&DID=1689