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Bielanski, T. E. (1999). Horse-chestnut seed extract for chronic venous insufficiency. Journal of Family Practice, Mar;48(3):171-2.

Diehm, C. (1996).  Comparison of Leg Compression Stocking and Oral Horse Chestnut See Extract in Patients with Chronic Venous Insufficiency.  Lancet, 347, 292-94.

Diehm, C. (1992).  Medical Edema Protection--Clinical Benefits in Patients With Deep Vein Incompetence.  A Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind Study.  Vascular, 21, 188-192.

Ernst, E. (1999).   Herbal medications for common ailments in the elderly. Drugs Aging.  Dec;15(6):423-8

Jellin, J. M., Batz, F., Hitchens, K., Pharmacist's Letter/Prescriber's Letter Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database.  Stockton, CA:  Therapeutic Research Faculty: 1999: 449-453.

Liehm, C. (1996).   Comparison of leg compression stockings and oral horse chestnut seed extract therapy in patients with chronic venous insufficiency. Lancet, Feb 3; 347(8997): 292-4.

Pittler, M. H. (1998).   Horse-chestnut seed extract for chronic venous insufficiency.  A criteria-based systematic review. Archives of Dermatology. Nov;134(11):1356-60.

Rotblatt, M. D. (1999).  Cranberry, feverfew, horse chestnut, and kava.  Western Journal of Medicine, 171(3), 195-8.