General Description: A
biennial herb that grows wild in parts of North America and Europe.
oil from the seeds
risk of cardiovascular diseases
cholesterol and triglycerides
platelet aggregation (only in
PMS (no clinical evidence to support)
arthritis (only after 6 months of
peripheral neuropathy in diabetics
ripening and in place of Pitocin stimulating labor.
(Has not been studied
High concentrations of cis-linoleic and cis-gammalinolenic acid
(GLA) when converted to DGLA
(dihomo-gramma-linolenic acid) causes a release of arachidonic acid.
Decreases the production of series 2 prostaglandins and leukotrienes.
.6 – 6 g. Daily
atopic eczema bid
effects, however, can produce nausea, headache, GI upset. Use cautiously in pregnancy.
Can cause an increased incidence of prolonged rupture of membranes,
arrest of descent, and vaccum.
Pregnancy/lactating. Schizophrenic patients taking epileptogenic
Inform patients that
because linoleic and gammalinolenic are polyunsaturated fatty acids, they
are subject to oxidation and should be stored properly and can be checked
by smelling or tasting for bitterness.
Caution patients when taking phenothiazine drugs, they can reduce
seizure threshold, could cause increase risk of temporal lobe epilepsy.
parents to use this herb for a hyperactive child only under supervision of
a health care provider.
3 month treatment may be needed to achieve clinical response.