Cultural Competency and Haitian Immigrants

 

Purnell's Model 

Purnell's Model

Overview/Heritage:
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Communication
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Family roles & organization
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Workforce issues

Biocultural ecology

High-risk behaviors

Nutrition
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Pregnancy

Death rituals

Spirituality
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Health care practices
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Health care practitioners

References

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Click here to see visual representation of model

Purnell's model is  a circle with the outer ring representing global society. Global society is "world communications and politics; conflicts and warfare; natural disasters and famines; international exchanges in business, commerce, and information technology; advances in the health sciences; space exploration; and the increased ability for people to travel around the world and to interact with diverse societies." (p. 9).11

The second ring  is labeled "Community" and is  defined as "a group of people having a common interest or identity and living in a specified locality." (p. 9).11

The third ring represents "Family" and is defined as "two or more people who are emotionally involved with each other" (p. 9).11

The fourth ring represents "Person" and is defined as "a biopsychosociocultural human being who is constantly adapting" (p. 9).11

In from the person ring are 12 wedges that represent cultural domains and their concepts: 

  • Overview/heritage

    Includes concepts related to:

    • Country of origin

    • Current residence

    • The effects of the topography of country of origin and current residence on health

    • Economics

    • Politics

    • Reasons for migration

    • Education status

    • Occupations 11, 12, 13

  • Communication

    Includes concepts related to:

    • Dominant language 

    • Dialects 

    • Cultural communication patterns

      • Personal space

      • Body language

      • Touch

      • Temporal relationships

      • Format for names 11, 12, 13

  • Family roles and organization

    Includes concepts related to:

    • The head of the household 

    • Gender roles

    • Family goals and priorities

    • Developmental tasks of children and adolescents

    • Roles of the aged 

    • Roles of extended family members

    • Individual and social status in the community

    • Acceptance of alternative lifestyles

      • Single parenting

      • Nontraditional sexual orientations

      • Childless marriages

      • Divorce 11, 12, 13

  • Workforce issues

    Includes concepts related to:

    • Autonomy

    • Acculturation

    • Assimilation

    • Gender roles

    • Ethnic communication styles

    • Individualism

    • Health care practices from the country of origin. 11, 12, 13

  • Biocultural ecology

    Includes concepts related to:

    • Skin color

    • Body type

    • Diseases that are genetic, hereditary, topographic or endemic

    • How the culture metabolizes drugs11, 12, 13

  • High-risk behavior

    Includes concepts related to:

    • Drug use

    • Alcohol use

    • Nicotine use

    • Dangerous behaviors

    • Use of safety equipment (seat belts, helmets)

    • High risk behaviors (sexually or otherwise)

    • Degree of sedentary lifestyle

    • Consumption of unhealthy food 11, 12, 13

  • Nutrition

    Includes concepts related to:

    • Availability of food

    • Rituals and taboos associated with food

    • The meaning of food to the culture

    • How food is used in sickness and in health11, 12, 13

  • Pregnancy and childbearing practices

    Includes concepts related to:

    • Fertility practices

    • Labor and delivery practices

    • Practices that are considered taboo, prescriptive or restrictive during pregnancy

    • Labor and postpartum11, 12, 13

  • Death rituals

    Includes concepts related to:

    • How death is viewed

    • Euthanasia

    • Preparation for death

    • Burial practices

    • Bereavement practices 11, 12, 13 

  • Spirituality

    Includes concepts related to:

    • Practices that give strength and meaning of life to a individual

    • Religious practices

    • How prayer is used11, 12, 13

  • Health care practices

    Includes concepts related to:

    • Does the culture seek preventative or acute treatment?

    • Magicoreligious healthcare beliefs

    • Traditional practices

    • Individual responsibility for health

    • Self medicating practices

    • iews towards issues such as 

      • Organ donation

      • Mental illness

      • Rehabilitation

    • How pain is expressed

    • The sick role

    • Barriers to health care11, 12, 13

  • Health care practitioners

    Includes concepts related to:

    • Type of practitioners the culture uses

      • Traditional, or folk 

      • Biomedical

    • Does gender of the practitioner comes in to play?

    • What is the status the practitioner has in this culture?11, 12, 13


Copyright  2003