Department of Geography & Geosciences

 

Holloway Hall

Geography/Geology Course Descriptions

GEOGRAPHY (GEOG)

100. INTRODUCTION TO HUMAN GEOGRAPHY (3 hours)

Introduction to the variable human character of the earth. Contemporary world problems such as population, growth, economic development, urbanization, resource utilization and human alteration of the natural environment are examined from a locational perspective. Three hours per week. Meets General Education IIIB or IIIC (Prior to Fall 2008: IIB).

101. WORLD GEOGRAPHY: EUROPE AND ASIA (3 hours)

A geographic study of the countries of Europe and Asia emphasizing their physical and cultural characteristics. Special attention to contemporary issues/problems. Three hours per week. Meets General Education IIIB or IIIC (Prior to Fall 2008: IIB).

102. WORLD GEOGRAPHY: AFRICA AND AMERICA (3 hours)

Geographic study of countries of Africa and the Americas emphasizing their physical and cultural characteristics. Special attention to contemporary issues/problems. May not receive credit for both GEOG 301 and GEOG 102. Three hours per week. Meets General Education IIIB or IIIC (Prior to Fall 2008: IIB). 

104. EARTH AND SPACE SCIENCE (4 hours)

Lab Keys

An introductory course in earth and space science for prospective elementary school teachers. An examination of the physical character of the Earth and its place in the solar system. Students can not receive credit for both GEOG 104 and GEOG 105. This course is intended for elementary education majors. Three hours lecture, two hours laboratory per week. Meets General Education IVA or IVB. (Prior to Fall 2008: IIIA or IIIB).

105. INTRODUCTION TO PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY (4 hours)

Introduction to the variable physical character of the earth. Treatment of weather, climate, soil, vegetation, landforms and oceanic circulation with emphasis on processes, interrelationships and distributional patterns. Students can not receive credit for both GEOG 104 and GEOG 105. Three hours lecture, two hours laboratory per week. Meets General Education IVA or IVB. (Prior to Fall 2008: IIIA or IIIB).

107. WEATHER AND HUMAN AFFAIRS (3 hours)

Comprehensive introduction to weather and its effects on our everyday lives. Influence of human activity on the atmosphere: acid rain, ozone depletion, global warming, nuclear winter. Three hours per week. Meets General Education IVB (Prior to Fall 2008: IIIB).

141. CURRENT ISSUES IN EARTH SCIENCE (3 hours)

Teaches non-science majors how to critically evaluate contemporary earth science topics of public interest as reported in the media. Learn about the science behind the issues, such as terminology, processes, data analysis and underlying assumptions. Differing viewpoints and ethical considerations are discussed. Two hours lecture, two hours discussion per week. Meets General Education IVB (Prior to Fall 2008: IIIB).

200. APPLICATIONS IN GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS (3 hours)

Introduction to the current practices in GIS, focusing on their application in the sciences, the development of public policy and business. Basic theory and practice is supported by hands-on experience with ArcView software. May not be taken for credit if student has credit for GEOG 319. Prerequisites: Sophomore standing and GEOG 100 or 102 or 104 or 105 or GEOL 103 or BIOL 310. Two hours lecture, two hours laboratory per week.

201. WEATHER AND CLIMATE (4 hours)

Examination of weather and climate with emphasis on processes and distributional patterns. Interrelationships between climatic controls stressed. Three hours lecture, two hours laboratory per week. Meets General Education IVA or IVB. (Prior to Fall 2008: IIIA or IIIB).

202. CULTURAL GEOGRAPHY (3 hours)

Examination of some of the basic concepts of human geography. Emphasis on such subjects as cultural origins and diffusion, perception, settlement forms and the relationship between humans, their culture and the physical environment. Three hours per week. Meets General Education IIIB or IIIC (Prior to Fall 2008: IIB). 

203. ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY (3 hours)

Analysis of the locational factors explaining the geographic distribution of economic activity: rural and urban land use, cities, industry, transport and trade, economic development. Three hours per week. Meets General Education IIIB or IIIC (Prior to Fall 2008: IIB). 

204. SPATIAL ANALYSIS (4 hours)

Introduction to the basic principles of quantitative analysis in Geography (Human, Methodology) geography. Emphasis on the geographic applications of various techniques rather than on the underlying statistical theory. Prerequisite: MATH 155 or 213. Three hours lecture, two hours laboratory per week.

219. MAP INTERPRETATION AND ANALYSIS (3 hours)

Introduction to mapping science principles and practice. focusing on the application of methods to map interpretation. Topics covered include surveying (compass and pace), map projections, fundamentals of GPS, map compilation and design, and an introduction to GIS. Two hours lecture, two hours laboratory per week.

220. HUMANS AND THE ENVIRONMENT (4 hours)

Interdisciplinary laboratory course in conjunction with the departments of Biology and Chemistry designed for non-sci-ence majors to develop awareness of ways earth’s environment is influenced by human activities and effects of the environment on human society. Cannot be repeated for credit in the Biology or Chemistry departments; cannot be used to satisfy course requirements within the major. For students in the Honors Program. Three hours lecture, two hours laboratory per week.

301. WORLD REGIONS (3 hours)

Examination of contemporary patterns of life in selected areas of the world from a regional viewpoint. Attention given to the physical environment, resource use, economic activities, demographic and sociocultural characteristics and regional problems. Prerequisite: GEOG 100 or 101 or 102 or 104 or 105. Three hours per week. Meets General Education IIIB or IIIC (Prior to Fall 2008: IIB). 

302. GEOGRAPHY OF THE UNITED STATES AND CANADA (3 hours)

Analysis of contemporary patterns of American and Canadian life from a regional perspective. Major topics include the physical environment, resource and land use, economic activities, demographic and sociocultural characteristics, and regional problems. Prerequisite: GEOG 100 or 101 or 102 or 104 or 105. Three hours per week.

308. PRINCIPLES OF PLANNING (3 hours)

Analysis of the theory and practice of planning at various spatial levels (local, regional, state and federal). Emphasis on planning processes, responsibilities of professional planners, and detailed examination of contemporary issues like control of sprawl and coastal zone management. Cannot receive credit for both GEOG 208 and GEOG 308. Prerequisite: Junior standing. Three hours per week.

309. GEOGRAPHY OF THE MID-ATLANTIC (3 hours)

Study of the U.S. mid-Atlantic region encompassing human and physical aspects of its geography, particularly in the relationship between humans and their physical environment. Course has two field trips. Prequisite: One physical geography/geology course and one human geography course. Three hours per week.

310. REGIONAL GEOGRAPHY OF EUROPE (3 hours)

Regional analysis of contemporary geographic patterns of Europe. Emphasis on physical, economic and political patterns and regional problems. Prerequisite: GEOG 100 or 101 or 102 or 104 or 105. Three hours per week.

311. COASTAL PROCESSES (3 hours)

The study of coastlines and the geological forces that shape them. Four hours of lecture/lab per week in the laboratory setting and two mandatory half day Saturday field trips to Assateague Island. Prerequisite: GEOG 104 or 105 or GEOL 103 or permission of instructor. Two hours lecture, two hours laboratory per week. Meets General Education IVB (Prior to Fall 2008: IIB)

312. SEVERE AND HAZARDOUS WEATHER (3 hours)

Examines the physical and societal aspects of severe and hazardous weather in an effort to gain better knowledge of the atmospheric environment around us. Specific topics include extratropical cyclones, thunderstorms, tornadoes, severe winter weather, hailstones, lightning and tropical weather systems. Case studies are used to investigate human, economic and environmental consequences of sever and hazardous weather events. Prerequisite: GEOG 201. Three hours lecture per week.

316. BIOGEOGRAPHY (3 hours)

Study of the spatial distribution of plants and animals, including the processes that led to those distributions. The course synthesizes knowledge from the fields of ecology, geology, climatology, paleontology and physical  anthropology. Topics include patterns of biodiversity, evolution and extinction, communities and ecosystems, life on islands, earth history, paleoecology, human impacts and conservation.  Two mandatory field trips to local natural areas. Prerequisite:  A combined total of 12 hours in geography and/or biology, including at least one introductory physical geography course, or consent of instructor. Three hours lecture per week.

318. LOCAL FIELD COURSE (3 hours)

Familiarizes students with some of the basic field techniques of geography. Land use field studies and mapping of the rural and urban areas of eastern Maryland scheduled for Sundays. Prerequisite: Twelve hours in geography or permission of instructor. Four hours per week including five one-day field trips.

319. GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SCIENCE (4 hours)

Study of automated information handling using geographically referenced data to support spatial analysis. Consideration of and experience in the collection, storage and display of computer manipulated data. Includes hands-on experience with a variety of commercial software GIS packages. Prerequisite: GEOG 219. Three hours lecture, two hours laboratory per week.

320. CARTOGRAPHIC VISUALIZATION (3 hours)

Theory and application of cartographic principles and practices to advanced cartographic design. Lectures emphasize theory and principles. Laboratory provides practical experience in designing maps. Prerequisite: GEOG 200 or 219. Two hours lecture, two hours laboratory per week.

321. REMOTE SENSING OF THE ENVIRONMENT (3 hours)

Analysis of satellite imagery of the earth’s surface. Includes techniques necessary for collection, storage and processing of digital images to analyze environmental problems. Prerequisite: 12 hours in geography. Two hours lecture, two hours laboratory per week.

325. CONSERVATION AND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (3 hours)

An integrative look at the co-evolution of resource exploitation, use and conservation, and the changing idealogy that drives trends in resource management. Special emphasis on scalar dimensions in resource management, the effective role of our legal infrastructure in resource management and shifting values regarding human-nature interactions in America. Prerequisite: One physical geography/geology course and one human geography course. . Three hours per week.

327. POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY (3 hours)

Survey of the sub-discipline of political geography. Emphasis on spatial organization and conflict at various scales; geographies of elections, and analyses of international relations from a geographical perspective, with a consideration of geographic, economic and cultural aspects of global conflicts. Prerequisites: GEOG 100, 101, 102 or 203. Three hours per week.

328. APPLIED PLANNING (3 hours)

Application of planning principles and theories to real world land-use issues. Particular attention will be paid to the subdivision plat review process, zoning ordinances, and the role of citizens and local government in planning. Several actual planning case studies will be examined. Prerequisite: GEOG 308. Three hours per week.

335. COMPUTER CARTOGRAPHY (3 hours)

Theory and application of computer graphics to cartography. Emphasis on writing programs which produce computer-generated maps and which apply computer graphics to the solution of geographic problems. Prerequisite: GEOG 320 or COSC 116 or 117 or 118. Three hours per week.

389. REGIONAL FIELD STUDIES OF THE U.S. (3 hours)

On-site study of the geography, history and culture of selected regions of the United States. Pre-tour lectures and other activities required. May be repeated once for credit. Prerequisite: Six hours in GEOG and/or GEOL or consent of instructor. Three hours per week.

399. INTERNATIONAL FIELD STUDY (3-6 hours)

On-site study of the geography, history and culture of selected countries. Pre-tour lectures and other activities required. May be repeated once for credit. Prerequisite: Permission of instructor.

401. SOIL, WATER AND ENVIRONMENT (3 hours)

Study of basic chemical and physical properties of soil, focusing on surface hydrology of small watersheds and the related techniques used in environmental planning. Prerequisite: GEOL 103 or GEOG 104 or 105 or BIOL 310 or ENVH 210. Two hours lecture, two hours laboratory or one field trip per week.

402. ENVIRONMENTAL PLANNING (3 hours)

Translation of responsible environmental policies and principles into practical land-use regulations and local and regional planning tools. Emphasis on the landscape and land-use dimensions of environmental planning. Prerequisite: GEOG 308 or BIOL 310. Three hours per week. May include three one-day field trips.

403. ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARDS (3 hours)

Introduces students to the geographic principles and theories of natural and technological hazards. Both the physical properties of hazards and the human actions and reactions to hazards will be emphasized. Prerequisite: Six credits of geography. Three hours per week.

404. RURAL GEOGRAPHY AND LAND-USE PLANNING (3 hours)

Analysis of the economic, demographic and spatial patterns of the rural United States. Special attention given to the problems and potentialities of non-metropolitan areas and to land use planning. Prerequisite: GEOG 203. Three hours per week.

406. REGIONAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT (3 hours)

Analysis of the spatial incidence of economic growth. Emphasis on the spatial dimension as an important consideration in the theory and practice of economic development. Prerequisites: GEOG 203, 308. Three hours per week.

408. URBAN THEORY (3 hours)

Examination of theories and policies explaining urban development along with methods for evaluation. Assessment of the urban planning process with case studies. Prerequisite: GEOG 100, 101, 102 or consent of instructor. Three hours per week.

409. PHYSICAL AND HUMAN DIMENSIONS OF CLIMATIC CHANGE (3 hours)

A revolving set of topics presented by geography faculty or invited speakers related to the scientific or socio-economic effects of climatic change on modern society. Topics will be announced the semester preceding the course offering. Prerequisites: C or better in GEOG 201 and two courses from the following: GEOG 206, GEOL 405, GEOG 402, GEOG 403, GEOG 410, GEOG 413. Two hours seminar and one hour online session per week.

410. METEOROLOGY (3 hours)

Analysis of physical processes and dynamics of the atmosphere. Topics include upper atmospheric flow, forecasting and severe weather. Prerequisite: GEOG 201. Three hours per week.

411. GEOMORPHOLOGY (3 hours)

Study of the surface of the earth and the geologic processes that modify it. Topics include the effects of water, wind, ice and other agents of erosion and deposition and the resulting landforms. Prerequisite: GEOL 103 or GEOG 104 or 105. Two hours lecture, two hours laboratory per week.

412. WEATHER ANALYSIS AND FORECASTING (3 hours)

Introduction to the basic tools of weather analysis and techniques of weather forecasting. Acquire the skills needed to analyze and interpret surface and upper-air observations, data from satellites and radar, atmospheric soundings, and severe weather indices. Make forecasts of temperature, precipitation and other meteorological conditions. Prerequisites: GEOG 201, 410. Three hours lecture per week.

413. APPLIED CLIMATOLOGY (3 hours)

Analysis of the impact of climate on the physical environment and human behavior. Topics include climatic change, contemporary climatic problems and the influence of climate on agriculture, and energy use. Prerequisite: GEOG 201 or permission of instructor. Three hours per week.

414. RESEARCH AND WRITING (3 hours)

Development of research methods in geography. Topics include formulation of problems, establishment of hypotheses, development of structures for testing hypotheses and practice with forms of geographic presentation. Maps, numerical and field methods are used. Cannot receive credit for both GEOG 300 and GEOG 414. Prerequisites: GEOG 204, junior-level standing, 12 credits in geography. Three hours per week.

415. SELECTED PROBLEMS (3 hours)

Independent study permitting research or in-depth work on a selected topic to be indicated on student’s transcript. May be taken twice for credit under different subtitles. Intended for seniors with 18 or more hours in geography. Prerequisite: Permission of department chair.

416. SMARTH GROWTH (3 hours)

Explanations of smart growth program adressing urban challenges such as sprawl, lack of open space and central city decline. Introduction of early efforts to manage urban growth and growth management programs at the state and local levels. Prerequisite: GEOG 308 or permission of instructor. Three hours a week.

417. WATER RESOURCES (3 hours)

Exploration of water resources in America that looks at water in all its facets as a physical resource and a nexus of human-environment interactions. Designed for multiple disciplines and presumes a variable knowledge base at the beginning. Weaving togehter the hydrologic flow of water and the social structures that capture, divert, buy, sell, steal, manipulate and exploit water resources form the basis of exploration. Prerequisite: One course in ohysical geography and one course in human geography and junior standing. Three hours per week.

419. ADVANCED GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SCIENCE (4 hours)

Study of current theories and development trends in GIS technology. Emphasis on hands-on working knowledge utilizing ARC/INFO software. Prerequisites: GEOG 319 and COSC 118 or 120. Three hours lecture, two hours laboratory per week.

422. READINGS IN GEOGRAPHY (3 hours)

Permits in-depth study of a selected topic to be indicated on student’s transcript. May be taken twice for credit under different subtitles. Intended for seniors with 18 or more hours in geography. Prerequisite: Permission of department chair.

435. GIS PROGRAMMING (3 hours)

Theory and application of computer programming solutions in geography. Focuses on developing custom computer programs addressing classical problems in geography and spatial analysis not ordinarily solved using out-of-the-box GIS software. Introduction to basic programming techniques, object model diagrams, component object modling (COM) and spatial databases. Prerequisites: GEOG 320 and COSC 117, 118, 120. Three hours per week.

450. TOPICS IN GEOGRAPHY (3 hours)

Analysis of a selected systematic/regional topic to be entered on the student’s transcript. May be taken three times for credit under different subtitles. Prerequisite: Permission of department chair. Three hours per week.

460. INTERNSHIP (1-3 hours)

Provides students with opportunities to apply geographic/planning theory, techniques and knowledge as practicing professionals. Intended for seniors with 18 or more hours in geography. Cannot be used to satisfy requirements for the major. Prerequisite: Permission of department chair. Three hours per week for each credit hour. (P/F)

475. FIELD PROBLEMS IN GEOGRAPHY (3-6 hours)

Geographic research field experience. Development of a research proposal, collection and analysis of data and the integration of such in a formal research paper. Prerequisite: Permission of instructor.

499. GEOGRAPHY HONORS (6 hours)

Two-semester independent study leading to preparation of an honors thesis and graduation with honors in geography. Students may enroll by invitation of the department only. Specific topic indicated on the student’s transcript. Prerequisite: Permission of department chair.

501. SOIL, WATER AND ENVIRONMENT (3 hours)

Study of basic chemical and physical properties or soil, focusing on surface hydrology of small watersheds and the related techniques used in environmental planning. Prerequisite: Graduate standing. Two hours lecture, two hours laboratory or one field trip per week.

503. ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARDS (3 hours)

Introduces students to the geographic principles and theories of natural and technological hazards. Both the physical properties of hazards and the human actions and reactions to hazards will be emphasized. Prerequisite: Graduate standing. Three hours per week.

504. SEMINAR: PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY (3 hours)

Seminar deals with current problems in the areas of meteorology, climatology, soils, geomorphology and vegetation. Topics selected with permission of instructor. May be taken twice for credit under different subtitles. Prerequisites: Graduate standing and permission of department chair. Three hours per week.

505. RURAL GEOGRAPHY AND LAND-USE PLANNING (3 hours)

Analysis of the economic, demographic and spatial patterns of the rural United States. Special attention given to the problems and potentialities of non-metropolitan areas and to land use planning. Prerequisites: Graduate standing and GEOG 203 or permission of instructor. Three hours per week.

506. SEMINAR IN REGIONAL GEOGRAPHY (3 hours)

Analysis of selected topics on the physical and/or human geography of specified geographic regions. The region under consideration varies from semester to semester. Topics chosen with permission of instructor. May be taken twice for credit under different subtitles. Prerequisites: Graduate standing and permission of department chair. Three hours per week.

507. REGIONAL PLANNING (3 hours)

Analysis of the spatial incidence of economic growth. Emphasis on the spatial dimension as an important consideration in the theory and practice of economic development planning. Prerequisites: Graduate standing and GEOG 203 or permission of instructor. Three hours per week.

508. URBAN PLANNING (3 hours)

Examination of theories and policies related to urban development and land use planning, along with techniques for evaluation. Assessment of the urban planning process with case studies. Prerequisites: Graduate standing and GEOG 308 or permission of instructor. Three hours per week.

510. METEOROLOGY (3 hours)

Analysis of physical processes and dynamics of the atmosphere. Topics include upper atmospheric flow, forecasting and severe weather. Prerequisites: Graduate standing and GEOG 201 or permission of instructor. Three hours per week.

511. GEOMORPHOLOGY (3 hours)

Study of the surface of the earth and the geologic processes that modify it. Topics include the effects of water, wind, ice and other agents of erosion and deposition and the resulting landforms. Prerequisites: Graduate standing and GEOL 103 or permission of instructor. Two hours lecture, two hours laboratory per week.

513. APPLIED CLIMATOLOGY (3 hours)

Analysis of the impact of climate on the physical environment and human behavior. Topics include climatic change, contemporary climatic problems and the influence of climate on agriculture, and energy use. Prerequisites: Graduate standing and GEOG 201 or permission of instructor. Three hours per week.

515. SELECTED PROBLEMS (3 hours)

Independent study permitting research or in-depth work on a selected topic to be indicated on student’s transcript. May be taken twice for credit under different subtitles. Intended for seniors with 18 or more hours in geography. Prerequisites: Graduate standing and permission of department chair.

519. ADVANCED GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SCIENCE  (4 hours)

Study the current theories and development trends in GIS technology. Emphasis on hands-on working knowledge utilizing ARC/INFO software. Prerequisites: Graduate standing and permission of instructor. Three hours lecture, two hours laboratory per week.

522. READINGS IN GEOGRAPHY (3 hours)

Permits in-depth study of a selected topic to be indicated on student’s transcript. May be taken twice for credit under different subtitles. Intended for seniors with 18 or more hours in geography. Prerequisites: Graduate standing and permission of department chair.

530. DIRECTED RESEARCH (3 hours)

Preparation of optional research project in master’s degree program under departmental direction. Prerequisites: Graduate standing and permission of department chair.

535. GIS PROGRAMMING (3 hours)

Theory and application of computer programming solutions in geography. Focuses on developing custom computer programs addressing classical problems in geography and spatial analysis not ordinarily solved using out-of-the-box GIS software. Introduction to basic programming techniques, object model diagrams, component object modling (COM) and spatial databases. Prerequisites: Graduate standing and permission of department chair. Three hours per week.

550. TOPICS IN GEOGRAPHY (3 hours)

Analysis of a selected systematic/regional topic to be entered on the student’s transcript. May be taken three times for credit under different subtitles. Prerequisites: Graduate standing and permission of department chair. Three hours per week.

560. INTERNSHIP (1-3 hours)

Provides students with opportunities to apply geographic/planning theory, techniques and knowledge as practicing professionals. Intended for seniors with 18 or more hours in geography. Cannot be used to satisfy requirements for the major. Prerequisite: Approval of the department. Three hours per week for each credit hour. (P/F)

575. FIELD PROBLEMS IN GEOGRAPHY (3-6 hours)

Geographic research field experience. Development of a research proposal, collection and analysis of data and the integration of such in a formal research paper. Prerequisites: Graduate standing and permission of department chair.

619. MANAGING GISYSTEMS (3 hours)

Study of strategies for successful GIS management and implementation in an organization-wide context.  Implementation management strategies are introduced through systematic user needs assessment, requirements specification, database design, application development, pilot project testing, implementation, operation and maintenance. Public policy requirements and legal responsibilities for geographic records management are also examined.  Prerequisites: Graduate standing and GEOG 419 or GEOG 519. Three hours per week.  

630. GISYSTEMS AND PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION (3 hours)

Examines practical approaches for incorporating geographic information systems (GIS) technology into a public administration setting. Discusses implementation strategies, cost benefit
analyses, and strategies for overcoming technical and organizational boundaries. Case studies illustrate how public officials have successfully applied GIS to their specific needs.
Prerequisites: Graduate standing, POSC 540, and GEOG 419 or GEOG 519. Three hours per week.
Prerequisites: Graduate standing and GEOG 419 or GEOG 519. Three hours per week.  

640. GISYSTEMS CO-OPERATIVE EXPERIENCE (6 hours)

A directed field study program which provides students with an opportunity to apply GIS skills acquired in the classroom to real-world projects in the community. Additionally, a weekly
seminar discussion gives participants a chance to peer review the co-operative projects as well as receive expert guidance. Students are under the supervision of an advisor from the GIS faculty while participating in a short-term experience program in a business or government agency.
Prerequisites: GEOG 619, 630. Six hours per week.

650. CAPSTONE GISYSTEMS SEMINAR (3 hours)

Summarizes and synthesizes the skills, knowledge and experience gained in the program. Students review a peer GIS implementation project, organizing and completing an
assessment of the likelihood that the project achieved its goals. In addition, students support their analyses using the most current literature regarding GIS and public administration, emphasizing their particular area of interest. Prerequisite: GEOG 640. Three hours per week.

GEOLOGY (GEOL)

103. INTRODUCTION TO PHYSICAL GEOLOGY (4 hours)

Introduction to the nature and character of the Earth’s crust and the geological processes that generate and shape landform features. Topics include minerals, rocks, earth structure and plate tectonics, geological processes and associated landforms. Three hours lecture, two hours laboratory per week. Meets General Education IVA or IVB (Prior to Fall 2008: IIIA or IIIB.

206. HISTORICAL GEOLOGY (4 hours)

Study of the hirtory of the earth and the principles used to decipher the earth's past from rock record. Includes study of stratigraphic principles, key fossil groups, and relative and absolute dating techniques. Prerequisite: GEOL 103 with a C or better. Three hours lecture, two hours laboratory per week.

405. ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY (3 hours)

Study of the fundamental principles and applications of environmental geology. Emphasis on environmental hazards, associated impact risks, and the dynamic interactions between humans and the environment. The topics covered include natural hazards, resources and the environment, land use and the environment, and environmental geology research methods. Prerequisite: GEOL 103 or GEOG 104 or 105. Two hours lecture, two hours laboratory per week.